The West African Examination Council (WAEC) biology exam paper for the GCE (General Certificate Examination) is scheduled to be written on Friday, 8th December 2023. This article aims to provide candidates with a comprehensive overview of the objective and essay questions that they may encounter in the exam.
The WAEC Biology exam consists of two sections: Section A, which is the objective section, and Section B, which is the essay section. The exam will commence at 9:30 am, with the essay section lasting for 1 hour and 40 minutes. Following this, the objective section will begin at 11:10 am and will last for 50 minutes.
Note: This article is based on past questions and answers
Section B [Essay]
In the essay section, candidates are required to answer any four questions. Here are some sample questions that candidates may come across:
- List three characteristics of living organisms.
- In tabular form, state four differences between plants and animals.
- Name one organism that exhibits both plant and animal features. State four animal features and two plant features possessed by the organism.
- What is photosynthesis?
- List four external factors and two internal factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
- List the major products of the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis and state the importance of each.
- Explain why there are no green plants at the lower depths of some lakes and state why decomposers are important to flowering plants.
- Explain the terms “disease” and “symptoms of diseases.”
- List two physical and two chemical barriers that prevent pathogens from penetrating the body of an organism. Explain how vaccination protects the body from contracting infectious diseases.
- Distinguish between an antibody and an antigen. Name the causative agents of malaria, cholera, and AIDS.
- Define excretion and list the excretory organs in humans, along with one waste product excreted by each organ.
- Explain how the mammalian kidney functions as an excretory organ.
- Name the excretory organs in insects and earthworms.
- Define conservation and state six factors responsible for the decline of the abundance and variety of wildlife.
- Outline six ways in which the government can improve the situation mentioned above.
- Define eutrophication and state two causes of eutrophication.
- Describe the carbon cycle.
- State the functions of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and denitrifying bacteria in nature.
- Define a gene and differentiate between the terms genotype and phenotype.
- Explain the terms “hybrid,” “pure breeding,” and “nucleotide.”
- With the aid of a genetic diagram, determine the result expected if a homozygous rough pea is crossed with a smooth seed coat plant whose parents were rough-coated.
- Describe the process of epigeal germination of a seed and state three differences between epigeal germination and hypogeal germination.
- Define seed dormancy and state three ways by which dormancy in seeds can be broken.
- State six advantages of using contraceptives in human populations.
WAEC GCE Biology Objective Questions 2023
In Section A, candidates are required to answer all objective questions. Here are some sample objective questions that candidates may encounter:
- Where are most nitrogen compounds excreted from humans? A. kidneys B. liver C. rectum D. skin.
- A motor neurone transmits impulses from: A. muscle to the spinal cord. B. receptor to muscle. C. receptor to the spinal cord. D. spinal cord to muscle.
- In which order does light pass through these structures in the eye? A. cornea → aqueous humour → lens → vitreous humour → retina B. cornea → vitreous humour → lens → aqueous humour → retina C. lens → aqueous humour → cornea → vitreous humour → retina D. lens → vitreous humour → cornea → aqueous humour → retina
- A person with Down’s syndrome is born with 47 chromosomes in each cell, instead of 46. What could cause this? A. A mutation happened during the production of the egg cell. B. More than one sperm fused with the egg at fertilisation. C. Radiation caused a change in the structure of a gene in the father’s sperm. D. The mother was exposed to harmful chemicals while she was pregnant.
- A red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant. All the offspring have red flowers. What is the genotype of these offspring? A. RR and Rr B. RR only C. Rr only D. rr only
- A plant has flowers whose anthers mature and fall off before the stigma is fully developed. What will this prevent? A. cross-pollination B. insect-pollination C. self-pollination D. wind-pollination
- The cell wall of a plant cell is removed using an enzyme. What would happen if this cell is then placed in distilled water? A. It would take longer for the cell to become turgid. B. Proteins in the cytoplasm would leave through the cell membrane. C. The cell would become smaller as water passes out. D. The cell would burst as water moves into it.
- Some organisms live at the bottom of the seas where it is very dark. To synthesise glucose, they use energy from chemicals in the very hot water that comes out of volcanoes. What is a distinguishing feature of these organisms? A. Their enzymes are easily denatured by heat. B. They do not need carbon dioxide. C. They do not need to be green. D. They obtain energy only as carnivores.
- Under which set of conditions will the transpiration rate of a well-watered plant be fastest? A. a cool, dry, windless day B. a cool, rainy, windy day C. a hot, dry, windy day D. a hot, rainy, windy day.
- Why is glucose found in the urine of diabetics? A. increased uptake and use of glucose by the body cells B. not enough glucose in the blood is converted to glycogen C. stored fats in the body are being oxidized D. too much glucose is absorbed by the kidney cells.
- Which bones form a joint at the shoulder? A. humerus and scapula B. humerus and ulna C. radius and ulna D. radius and scapula.
- Which sequence describes the flow of energy in an ecosystem? A. carnivore → herbivore → plant → Sun B. plant → herbivore → carnivore → Sun C. Sun → carnivore → herbivore → plant D. Sun → plant → herbivore → carnivore.
These are just a few examples of the objective questions that may be asked in the WAEC GCE Biology exam. It is important for candidates to thoroughly revise the topics covered in the syllabus and practice answering similar questions to increase their chances of success.
Remember, there is no substitute for hard work and preparation. Avoid falling victim to scammers online who claim to provide leaked exam questions or answers. Stick to legitimate study materials and use past questions as a revision guide.
Good luck with your exam preparations!