WAEC GCE Geography Answers Objective and Essay External 2023

WAEC Question and answers


WAEC GCE Geography Answers Objective and Essay External 2023

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) is set to conduct the Geography paper for the GCE examination on Wednesday, 6th December, 2023. This article aims to provide external Waec GCE Geography questions and answers for both the objective and essay sections of the exam.

Waec GCE Geography Objective OBJ Questions 2023

Candidates appearing for the Waec GCE Geography exam can prepare themselves by practicing the following objective questions:


  1. Villages develop into urban centers when they:
    1. attract more people
    2. produce enough food
    3. establish educational institutions
    4. grow in commerce and industry.
  2. By how many times will a map measuring 12cm by 7cm be enlarged to make its area 336cm2?
    1. Twice
    2. Three times
    3. Four times
    4. Five times.
  3. Eluviation is the process by which:
    1. Soluble substances are removed from the upper layers of the soil
    2. soluble substances are deposited in the upper layers of the soil
    3. fine particles are removed from one layer of the soil to another
    4. fine particles are deposited in the upper layers of the soil.
  4. Transhumance is the seasonal migration of livestock:
    1. from the lowlands to the uplands
    2. from the north to the south following the rains
    3. in the semiarid steppes
    4. in search of water and pasture.
  5. Variations in the lengths of day and night over the earth’s surface are due to the:
    1. earth’s inclination to the sun and its revolution
    2. earth’s inclination to the sun and its rotation
    3. length of the earth’s orbit
    4. thickness of the earth’s atmosphere.
  6. The progressive widening of joints and cracks in limestone by solutions, initially leads to the formation of:
    1. grikes and clints
    2. stalactites and stalagmites
    3. caves and caverns
    4. cliffs and dry valleys.
  7. When condensation occurs in a rising air mass, latent heat is:
    1. absorbed by carbon dioxide
    2. lost to the atmosphere
    3. stored in the water molecules
    4. released as sensible heat.
  8. Two cloud types of a great vertical extent that produce much rainfall are:
    1. cumulus and stratus
    2. cumulus and cumulo-nimbus
    3. cumulo-nimbus and nimbostratus
    4. strato-cumulus and nimbostratus.
  9. The cheapest means of transport for long-distance travel is by:
    1. rail
    2. water
    3. air
    4. road.
  10. If the distance between two points on a map with a scale 1:50,000 is 35mm, what is the distance between them on the ground?
    1. 1.50 km
    2. 1.55 km
    3. 1.75 km
    4. 1.85 km.

These objective questions are designed to test the candidates’ understanding of various geographical concepts and principles. Practicing them will help improve their knowledge and performance in the exam.

Note: the article provides just help on past questions and answers.

Waec GCE Geography Essay Questions 2023

The essay section of the Waec GCE Geography exam requires candidates to provide detailed answers to specific questions. Here are some essay questions along with their model answers:

Essay Question 1: Write a geographical account of rail transport under the following headings:

(a) economic importance; (b) problems; (c) solutions.

Model Answer:

(a) Rail transport has significant economic importance. It facilitates the movement of goods and people over long distances, contributing to economic growth and development. Railways are vital for the transportation of heavy and bulky goods, such as minerals, coal, and agricultural produce. They connect different regions, promoting trade and commerce. Rail transport also plays a crucial role in the tourism industry, providing scenic routes and easy access to various destinations.

(b) Despite its economic importance, rail transport faces several problems. One major issue is the slow speed in developing countries, which hampers efficient transportation. Additionally, derailments due to flooding and poor time schedules affect the reliability of rail transport. The poor standard of coaches and competition from other modes of transportation, such as road and air, pose further challenges. Moreover, the high cost of construction, steep gradients/terrain, and expensive spare parts add to the problems faced by rail transport.

(c) To address these problems, several solutions can be implemented. Firstly, wider gauges can be used to increase the speed of trains. Introducing faster engines and coaches will improve the overall efficiency of rail transport. Proper planning and timing of movement schedules can help streamline operations. Improved management techniques, including better maintenance practices and staff training, are also essential. Financial support, such as loans from banks, can be utilized for infrastructure development and the internal manufacturing of spare parts.

Essay Question 2: Describe any three factors responsible for the dominance of light industries in developing countries.

(b) Highlight any four advantages of the concentration of industries in urban areas of developing countries. (c) Outline any three disadvantages of the concentration of industries in the urban areas of developing countries.

Model Answer:

(a) The dominance of light industries in developing countries can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the availability of cheap labor makes it economically viable to establish labor-intensive industries. Secondly, the abundance of raw materials in developing countries supports the growth of light industries. Finally, favorable government policies and incentives attract foreign investment, leading to the establishment of light industries.

(b) The concentration of industries in urban areas of developing countries offers several advantages. Firstly, it leads to the creation of employment opportunities, reducing unemployment rates and poverty. Secondly, urban areas provide better infrastructure, including transportation networks and utilities, which are essential for the smooth functioning of industries. Thirdly, the proximity of industries in urban areas promotes collaboration and the exchange of ideas, leading to innovation and technological advancements. Lastly, the concentration of industries in urban areas stimulates economic growth and development.

(c) Despite the advantages, the concentration of industries in urban areas of developing countries also has some disadvantages. Firstly, it leads to overcrowding and puts pressure on existing infrastructure, leading to issues like traffic congestion and inadequate housing facilities. Secondly, the concentration of industries can result in environmental pollution, including air and water pollution, which can harm the health and well-being of the population. Lastly, there is a risk of income inequality, as the benefits of industrialization may not be evenly distributed among the population.

These essay questions provide an opportunity for candidates to showcase their knowledge and understanding of various geographical concepts and their applications in real-world scenarios. By providing detailed and well-structured answers, candidates can demonstrate their analytical and critical thinking abilities.

In conclusion, preparing for the Waec GCE Geography exam requires a comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. By practicing both the objective and essay questions provided in this article, candidates can enhance their knowledge and improve their performance in the exam. Good luck to all the candidates!

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